Updated National Geography Standards Published

Geography for Life CoverAfter five years of careful work involving dozens of content experts, editors, and reviewers, the updated National Geography Standards have been published. The new document, Geography for Life: National Geography Standards, Second Edition, outlines 18 Standards that identify what students should know and be able to do in grades 4, 8, and 12.

According to Roger Downs, professor of geography at The Pennsylvania State University and chair of the Standards Content Committee, the updated Geography for Life reflects many of the changes in geography since publication of the original document in 1994. Topics such as globalization and human dimensions of global change are more fully integrated, he said, and the skills have been revised to incorporate the use of geographic information systems (GIS) and geospatial technology.

Short essays, designed to guide teachers but also allow them to find their own creative ways to encourage students to learn geography, introduce each of the Standards. “The Standards are better thought of as guidelines for what teachers might do, not a template for what they should do,” said Downs.

The new document’s layout and organization received attention during the revision process. “The major difference from the first edition, apart from the substantive updating, is in the structure of the Standards,” said Downs. “For each Standard, by use of careful scaffolding, there is an explicit attempt to build understanding from grade level to grade level.” This scaffolding illustrates how the geography content could be presented at each grade level.

“The redesign of the document enables a teacher or curriculum developer to see simultaneously how ideas are structured within a grade level and across the three grade levels,” Downs said.

“If you want to look ahead to see where students are going, or if you’re at the 12th grade level and want to look back to see what students may or may not have had… it’s all on one page for you as you look at a Standard,” said Susan Gallagher Heffron, Senior Project Manager for Geography Education at the Association of American Geographers and a member of the Standards Content Committee.

Gallagher Heffron served as project manager for the updated Geography for Life. She and Downs were co-editors of the document. The second edition also has new photographs and maps and an expanded glossary of geography terms, which Gallagher Heffron said should be a useful instructional tool for teachers using the Standards, especially those who are new to geography.

She also cited new emphasis on “doing geography”—helping students learn to ask and answer geographic questions—as another important update. Other modifications should make the document itself easier to use. The book’s spiral binding allows it to lay open on a desk.

Geography for Life was developed under the auspices of the Geography Education National Implementation Project (GENIP), a consortium involving the Association of American Geographers, the American Geographical Society, the National Council for Geographic Education, and the National Geographic Society.

NCGE will manage sales and distribution of the document. The National Geographic Society is developing a companion website focused on the updated Standards.

Gallagher Heffron said she hopes curriculum developers, educators, textbook publishers, and others embrace the updated Standards and create products that aid teachers.

“The overall goal remains the same,” Downs said. “This is geography for life, an indispensable way of understanding the world and functioning in it.”

To order your copy, please visit www.ncge.org/geography-for-life.

–Tim Hill

NCGE Training Project Results in Dam Failure Study

North Dakota ReservoirDirections Magazine recently published “Emergency Preparedness and Response Planning for Catastrophic Dam Failure” by Jacquelin J. Stenehjem  and Dr. Peter G. Oduor. Stenehjem participated in a National Council for Geographic Education training initiative, which the authors described in the article.

The growth of geospatial technology would be even greater if more well-trained workers were available.  Many industries and agencies cannot fill open positions, even in this time of high unemployment. The Integrated Geospatial Education and Technology Training (iGETT) project, funded by the National Science Foundation with a 2012 grant to the National Council for Geographic Education, was developed to address the growing workforce need for geospatially-trained employees able to use remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS).

The study focused on Williston, North Dakota, which is downstream from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers-operated Fort Peck Dam. According to the article, the dam creates the fifth-largest reservoir in the United States. Stenehjem and Oduor demonstrate how remote sensing and geographic information systems can be valuable tools to aid communities in preparing for and responding to disasters.

AP Human Geography Growth Noted

A lengthy article in Education Week reports on the dramatic growth trajectory of the AP Human Geography exam.

Geography may not be particularly known as a hot topic among today’s students—even some advocates suggest it suffers from an image problem—but by at least one measure, the subject is starting to come into its own.

Across more than 30 topics covered in the Advanced Placement program, participation in geography is rising faster than any other. It’s joined by AP courses like Chinese, environmental science, psychology, and world history that have been gaining ground most rapidly in recent years.

The article goes on to explore possible explanations for geography’s growing popularity, with quotes from Daniel Edelson, National Geographic’s vice president for education.

“It reflects the interest in the subject and the fact that there is still a lot of room to grow across the country,” he said. “I don’t know if anybody has a projection for how long it will continue at this pace, but we’re nowhere near saturation.”

Advanced Placement (AP), a program of the College Board, provides an opportunity for high school students to earn college credit by taking challenging courses that are equivalent to those offered at the college level. The 2011 geography exam included 75 multiple-choice questions and three free-response essays. Students in the class of 2011 took more than 45,000 AP Human Geography exams, according to data from the College Board. The geography exam was first administered in May 2001 to 3,293 students.

More on this topic:

8th Annual AP Report to the Nation from the College Board
Human Geography Subject Supplement
from the College Board
AP Human Geography Course Home Page from the College Board
AP Human Geography resources
at the NCGE website

What Happened to the NC-SC Boundary?

You would not think that a boundary between two states could get lost, but that is what happened to the line separating North and South Carolina. When residents, tax collectors, and others wanted to know the precise location of the boundary, no one had an answer. According to “New SC-NC Border Will Affect Some Residents” in The State,

South Carolina and North Carolina have been working quietly since 1994 on resurveying their border. To avoid having to get congressional approval of the border, which would cost more, the states had to retrace their original boundary from the 1700s.

Researchers searched for clues in state archives and country courthouses. In some border areas, stone monuments—many of which have been rediscovered—marked the boundary. In other stretches, the 18th-century surveyors marked the boundary on trees that were cut down or died long ago. Eighteen years and $980,000 later, the survey process is nearing completion, according to The State article. A few border residents may find themselves in a new state, which would bring new addresses, phone numbers, driver’s licenses, tax rates, and even utility companies.

National Public Radio’s Weekend Edition Sunday had a little fun by pointing out a culinary dilemma for Carolinians who find themselves on the wrong side of the border.

For residents and state officials, that’s meant headaches like who pays which state’s taxes, and which children go to which school districts and what kind of sauce will be on my barbecue? North Carolinians are known to turn up their noses at a plate of South Carolina’s mustard-based barbecue. And South Carolinians are equally disdainful of the vinegar sauce touted by their northern neighbors.

International boundaries, especially when they are disputed, receive a lot of attention in political geography. This story demonstrates that even state and local boundaries bring about important cultural, political, and economic implications.

—Tim Hill